Order of Premontre, Premonstratensians, Norbertines, and White Canons

2015

2015

ANALECTA PRAEMONSTRATENSIA, tom. XCI, 2015, fasc. 1-4
 
Articuli:
 
Ingrid EHLERS-KISSELER, Die Prämonstratenserinnen im deutschen Sprachraum und ihr Verhältnis zu den geistlichen und weltlichen Herren, p. 5-88
 
The study is divided in three parts. The first presents an overview of the development of Premonstratensian monasteries for nuns of the circaria westfalia, ilfeldia, vadegotia, suevia and bavaria.
The second part undertakes a closer examination of crisis in the Premonstratensian monasteries for women. What causes poverty? The departing convents of women, who left the monk’s abbeys, often got not enough property and income and economical power to survive. On the one hand they had no possibility for endowment on the other hand they were set in a track of waste land which could be brought into cultivation only by lay brethren, because women were not allowed to leave the cloister. Some monasteries were important economics, some rather small. Often there were many women wishing to enter. Some cloisters could not effort constructing new and bigger buildings. Sometimes the lack of a Numerus Clausus or the aim of a very expansive building could be the beginning of the fall of a monastery for women.
In some regions there are many people, laymen, townspeople, aristocracy and clergymen who found cloisters and support them. Above all they help monasteries in times of crisis. Even the bishops and archbishops were benefactores of monasteries for women. They gave parish churches as well. The study demonstrates that the king is important too. Nevertheless the abbots of the monasteries could help with a good leadership. The older bonds of filiation that reflect the origins and expansion of the monastic order remained important.
Finally, the last part of the study is dedicated to the summary. It shows the importance of wealthy people who sustains nunneries. The houses of nuns needed a well minded archbishop, who knows of importance of the Premontratensian Order for the clerical reform, as well as feudal magnates or wealthy townspeople, who support the convents in times of crisis. The defending privileges of crown and papal privileges often were given through the help of the abbots. The aim of the essay is too to show that the Premonstratensian Order in the middel-european region did not neglect the women in generally. There sprang up many fresh communities for woman in the bishoprics of Cologne, Mayence and Wurzburg. The first rapid expansion brought three times the number of nunneries than cloisters for men in the Premontratensian order.
 
Jürgen Rainer WOLF, Von adeliger Gründerin, erfundenen Meisterinnen und bürgerlicher Liquidierung 1808: das Chorfrauenstift Nieder-Ilbenstadt, p. 89-139
 
One oft the oldest Premonstratensian monasteries, Ilbenstadt, was established in 1123 by the brothers Godfried and Otto of Cappenberg, when they donated the grounds to the Archbishop of Mainz under the condition, that the new monastery would follow the Rule of Norbert of Xanten. Ilbenstadt was probably founded as a double monastery to house both canons and sisters; „sorores“ are first mentioned explicitly in the midst of the 12th century. By 1229, the convent held the thame rank as the friery and was lead by a mother superior, and by 1290 the sisters had moved to a seperate location in Nieder-Ilbenstadt. Having gained economic and spiritual independency at the end oft he 15th century, Nieder-Ilbenstadt was an autonomous convent with ist own seal in the 16th century. Starting with the Council of Trent, visitations give an idea of the growth and crises of the convent. At the end of the Thirty Years War, the sisters only barely withstood take-over attempts by the canons of Ober-Ilbenstadt. The convent never developed an independent historiography, and when the Premonstratenian Order made an mandantory in 1719, one simply invented the names of alleged medieval superiors. Towards the end of the 17th century, the convent flourished and was able to afford a new church that was later refitted in the 18th century. For most of its existence, the convent was home to over 20 sisters, laywomen and novices. Having suffered greatly in the wars at the end of the 18th century, it was handed over to the Counts of Leiningen-Westerburg during the secularization of the monasteries. The new landholders agreed to grant life estate to the remaining sisters who preferred, however, to end their cloistered life and return to their families. The convent officially ended when its last prioress died in 1808. Soon later, the convent church was torn down. Today, the former convent is managed as a Hessian state domain by the name „Nonnenhof“.
 
Ulrich G. LEINSLE, Abt Georg Lienhardt von Roggenburg (1717-1783). Studien zu seinem literarischen Werk. Teil II: Schriften zur Ordensspiritualität, p. 140-192
 
Georg Lienhardt’s writings about order’s spirituality were an outgrowth of his work as a novice master and of his speeches while being the abbot of Roggenburg. They are representing the most exhaustive analysis of the theology of religious life at the end of the Ancien Régime and were influential until the 20th century, not least because Lienhardt saw the purpose of religious life as well as Thomas Aquinas in perfect love (cf. Vaticanum II, Perfectae caritatis 1).
The writings are introduced in particular in the first part: Exhortator domesticus (1754), composed of exhortations for the novices; Disciplina tyrocinii (1760), planned as the second part of the Exhortator including lectures about asceticism and the abbot’s chapter speeches; Iter trium dierum in solitudine (1778/79) in three volumes including retreats for investiture, profession and first mass; Lignum pomiferum (1782) including spiritual exercises addressing monthly recollection.
In the second part several themes are analysed systematically: Lienhardt’s understanding of religious live in the vocation to perfect love; the five aims of the Premonstratensian order, which were composed by Lienhardt for the first time this way; his understanding of profession and vows; the obligation to strive for perfection; pastoral ministry (including Lienhardt’s influential description of the Premonstratensians as ‘nati pastores’) and finally his criticism of temporary deficiencies (Peculium, culinary delights etc.).
 
Ulrich G. LEINSLE, Wahl und Resignation des Speinsharter Abtes Eberhard Razer (1771-1778). Eine Abtwahl im Schatten bayerischer Klosterpolitik, p. 193-237
 
On September 9th 1771 the forty-two years old sacristan Eberhard Razer (1729-1792) was elected abbot of Speinshart (Upper Palatinate/Bavaria). He became the successor of the important abbot Dominikus von Lieblein (1734-1771). In 1778 he resigned. Sources from the Staatsarchiv Amberg, which are not yet regarded, reveal that his whole reign was influenced by the question of the freedom of the election in 1771 and by several plans of resignation, which were developed in close contact with general abbot Guillaume Manoury (1769-1780). Their correspondence shows how intense the contact had been between Bavaria and Prémontré despite the obstruction through the given state prohibitions.
The election was conducted in political accordance with prince-elector Maximilian III. Joseph von Bayern (1745-1777). Among other things he had decided that only a native could be elected. The monastery of Speinshart including twenty voters counted only a few members from Bavaria. On the other hand, considering Speinshart’s burden of debts, the purchase of the Ius indigenatus seemed to be impossible, because it was too expensive. Furthermore all superiors should be natives, too. Because of this Razer, who was born in Bavaria, was elected abbot.
Just after the election resistance was offered under the pretext that the election had not been free. This opposition prompted abbot Razer to his first plan of resignation, which he discussed especially with the father abbot of Steingaden, with vicar general Bernhard Strelin von Windberg, and with the general abbot during 1773 and 1775. Considering the expense and the risk of a new election Razer draw up the plan of a double administration (in temporalibus et spiritualibus) by Steingaden. But this was not possible because of the resignation of the father abbot, the death of the vicar general and the War of Bavarian Succession, during which Speinshart was occupied by Austria. Not until 1778 the new prince- elector Karl Theodor allowed Razer, who was now by himself dubious about the freedom of his election, to resign. The declaration was made on April 26th.
In the appendix there are edited: 1. the election’s procedure, 2. the election’s deed, 3. the speech of the chairman, abbot Marian Sagkrer of St. Salvator.
 
Miscellaneum:
 
Sz. Anzelm SZUROMI, In memoriam Rev. Andrew Imre Kovács O.Praem. (August 28 th 1926 – October 28 th 2014), p. 238-241
 
Recensio:
 
Die romanische Neumarktkirche zu Merseburg und ihr Patron Thomas Becket von Canterbury (U.G. Leinsle O.Praem.), p. 242-244
 
Chronicon, p. 245-291
 
Index, p. 292-301
 
Index tomi XCI, 2015, p. 302
 
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