Order of Premontre, Premonstratensians, Norbertines, and White Canons

2012

2012

ANALECTA PRAEMONSTRATENSIA, tom. LXXXVIII, 2012, fasc. 1-4
 
Articuli:
 
Jaap VAN MOOLENBROEK, Egidius (Gillis) van Leeuw, premonstratenzer kruisprediker, kruisvaarder naar Damietta en abt van Middelburg en Vicoigne († 1236), p. 5-41
 
This article concerns a notable Premonstratensian at the beginning of the thirteenth century, namely Giles of Leeuw, priest of Sint-Pieters-Leeuw in Brabant nears Brussels, crusade preacher and abbot of Middelburg in Zeeland and of Vicoigne in Hainaut. Since the publication of three nineteenth-century studies about Magister Giles, interesting new information has come to light. In this present study all the evidence concerning his personal details and career have been brought together and critically analysed, in order to develop a substantially revised account of his life.
The primary sources consist of a letter written by Giles, from 1219, entries in a chronicle and papal registers, and nine charters. In addition an account of his life was written about seventy years after his death in the chronicle of the abbots of Vicoigne, by Nicholas of Montigny. It is argued in this article that these accounts of his life, which were readily accepted by nineteenth-century authors, have a strong legendary character. At best, they can be used as additional information.
From the primary sources arises the image of an energetic and capable crusade preacher. From 1214 until at least 1227, Giles of Leeuw was very much involved in the recruiting and funding of the crusade in Brabant and Flanders. As well as being fully preoccupied with his task as a preacher of the crusades, appointed by the Pope, and thereafter re-appointed, he personally went on crusade. He participated in the Fifth Crusade (1217-1221) to Damietta in Egypt, where he became a penitentiary of the papal legate, Cardinal-bishop Pelagius of Albano. After his return, he was chosen as abbot of Middelburg, a function which he exercised for only a short time, probably from 1224 to 1226. In 1227 he went for a second time on crusade. He ended his life as abbot of Vicoigne, an office he held from 1230 to 1236.
Giles of Leeuw was a Premonstratensian who, by his eventful career, falls outside the recognisable boundaries of the Order’s way of life. He deserves an honourable place in reference works among the most outstanding crusade preachers of his time, and was the only Premonstratensian among them.
 
Ulrich G. LEINSLE, „In agro Norbertino-Thomistico“. P. Dominicus Aurnhammer OP als Professor in Marchtal 1652-1653, p. 42-67
 
In the years 1652 and 1653 P. Dominicus Aurnhammer († after 1663) of the Dominican monastery in Constance in the premonstratensian abbey Marchtal gave a course on philosophy and Theologia Moralis. In the named course, 17 students of four monasteries of the Swabian Circary participated, including 5 future abbots. The philosophical course was printed in 1655 with the support of the Swabian Circary in Constance under the title Connubium Pietatis cum Sapientia. In 1660, a second edition was published in Douai under an altered title.
The dedication to Abbot General Augustinus Le Scellier (1645-1666) and the prelates of the Swabian Circary stylized the Aurnhammer’s teaching to a marriage between pietas Norbertina and sapientia Thomistica. In fact Aurnhammer gave a slightly shortened, strictly thomistic lecture on the academic philosophy (not including cosmology or meteorology, but with short metaphysics). Remarkable are the contained contemporary controversies against scientific teachings, in which the aristotelian-thomistic physics were called into question fundamentally: vacuum experiments (to refute Valerian Magni OFMCap), imaginary spaces (to refute Christoph Haunold SJ) and the denial of the materia prima (to refute Matthäus Stoz SJ).
 
Ulrich G. LEINSLE, „Tunc vertetur scena“. Zu einem Konstruktionsprinzip der Medita-tionen des Strahover Abtes Hieronymus Hirnhaim (1637-1679), p. 68-95
 
Jeroným Hirnhaim (1637-1679), Abbot of Strahov Canonry, creates in his Meditationes (Prague 1678 and numerous other editions, also in German and Czech) a theatre of the world according to the principle of scene change. The first scene shows the wrong goings on of the world and the people within it, exposing their vanity, the second presents conversion as a turning away from the world, in monastery or beyond, and finally the third indicates the eschatological human destiny of death and judgement. In the end only two scenes will be performed for evermore: the wailing of the damned in the overfull hell and the glory of the few predestinated in heaven.
Hirnhaim’s Meditationes are closely connected to the early pietism (Spener, Pia desideria 1675) and though he adheres to the Augustinian doctrine of grace, he includes Jesuit positions as well. Genuine Jansenist theses are not to be found. Out of the 366 Meditationes to alphabetically arranged Bible passages an onesided negative image of the world and humanity becomes apparent, which goes back not so much to Premonstratensian sources as to the contemporary literature and spirituality.
 
Jochen OSSENBRINK, Die Wirtschaftsgeschichte des Klosters Clarholz. II. Teil: Die Bewirtschaftungs- und Ertragsgeschichte, p. 96-219
 
In the first decades after 1134 the Premonstratensians erected a Roman basilica beside the existing chapels of their monasteries in Clarholz and Lette. According to the early premonstratensian ideals it may be assumed that they worked at the extension of their economic enterprises in the vicinity to start a self-owned production aimed at fetching a surplus. The vast majority of all estates that were acquired were run at all times by tenants who delivered money and natural produce as lease. Noblemen and freemen as a rule owned individual monasterial estates as a time-limited lease whereas bondsmen of the monasteries cultivated their estates for life-time. Since the Late Middle Ages the self-contained economy of the monasteries was limited in favour of leasing but a central estate in Clarholz with fields, pastures, meadows and forests was kept. In the last third of the 17th century the monastery enlarged the “Hovesaat” in Clarholz and Lette by withdrawing individual leased estates later to leave them again short-termed to tenants for the highest offer.
In the time from 1175 until 1574 estates, rents, bailiwicks and tithe for at least 2612 Marks were acquired. Comprising 24 % nearly a quarter of the acquisitions fell in the time up to 1224 whereas with 58 % nearly three fifth of the investments were affected by purchase prices. The maximum of the acquisitions was displaced by important building investments in the second quarter of the 14th century. century. As the purchases also continued at a high level in the third quarter of that century Clarholz did not seem to be gripped by the great wave of the plague. Phases of economic decline ensued from the influence of the agrarian crisis of the Late Middle Ages and the local feuds in the first half of the 15th century as well as by mismanagement especially between 1567 and 1580. After the 30 Years’ War the monastery quickly recovered. The increase of the deliveries and an ordered accountancy allowed extensive building investments and a restructuring of the monastery layout in Baroque style. The Seven Years’ War impaired the monastery by reduced income. In spite of the high level of debt however it could take in and provide for a large number of French emigrants before it was abolished by the sovereign in Rheda.
 
Documenta:
 
Decretum super martyrio Petri Hadriani Toulorge, p. 220-223
 
Litterae Apostolicae quibus Venerabili Dei Servo Petro Hadriano Toulorge Beatorum honores decernuntur, p. 224-226
 
Miscellanea:
 
Rainer ROMMENS, Rückkehr des Roggenburger Konventbildes von 1768, p. 227-230
 
Xavier LAVAGNE D’ORTIGUE, Que savons-nous de Nicolas L’Ecuy?, p. 231-238
 
Dries VANYSACKER, A Champion of Ethics in the World of Professional Sport: Antoon Van Clé O.Praem. (1891-1955), p. 239-249
 
Thomas BOLIN, Benjamin Wambacq O.Praem. at Vatican II, p. 250-262
 
Recensiones:
 
Klemens H. HALDER, Norbert von Xanten. Der Gründer des Prämonstratenserordens und seine Zeit (H. Gritsch), p. 263-264
 
Fabrizio MANDREOLI, La teologia della fede nel De sacramentis Christiane fidei di Ugo di San Vittore (U.G. Leinsle O.Praem.), p. 265-267
 
Ulrich KÖPF / Dieter R. BAUER (Hg.), Kulturkontakte und Rezeptionsvorgänge in der Theologie des 12. und 13. Jahrhunderts (U.G. Leinsle O.Praem.), p. 267-269
 
Bernhard BRENNER, Normen und Reformen in ostschwäbischen Augustiner-Chorherrenstiften. Ihre Bedeutung für Ordensverfassung und Selbstverständnis (U.G. Leinsle O.Praem.), p. 269-271
 
Sebastian SAILER, Geistliche Reden. Eine Auswahl. Neu herausgegeben und kommentiert. Hg. von Konstantin MAIER (A. Knoll), p. 271-277
 
Jean VAN STRATUM, Bernard Henry Pennings (1861-1955). Founder of the Norbertine Order in the USA. The Man behind the Image (T.J. Antry O.Praem.), p. 277-278
 
Wolfgang GRASSL, Culture of Place: an Intellectual Profile of the Premonstratensian Order (B. Ardura O.Praem.), p. 278-280
 
Chronicon, p. 281-322
     Index, p. 323-330
Index tomi LXXXVIII, 2012, p. 331-332
 
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